Why Did US GDP Fall in Q1  2022?

By Shlomo Maital

    Warning!  Boring Economics stuff follows.

    So —  in the first three months of 2022,  ‘experts’ expected the US GDP to grow by 1%.

    Instead it fell!!  By 1.4%.   Yikes. 

    Recession?  Time to worry?

    Not really.  If you can stand 283 words on economics,  here is the explanation. 

    People kept spending money, with consumer spending growing by 2.7%.  That was good.

     But three things dragged the GDP growth figure down.

     One:  the “trade deficit” (that is, the difference between imports and exports).  The US ran a huge import surplus, importing stuff like crazy, catching up on the import slowdown because of clogged ports.  And remember, imports subtract from GDP, because Gross Domestic Product is only stuff made IN THE US!   So, a larger import surplus means slower GDP growth.

    Two:  inventory.  (Bo-o-o-o-oring!).  Inventory is the stock of stuff produced in previous periods.  When inventory falls (as it did),  because businesses are selling stuff they made earlier,  then the component of GDP known as ‘gross capital formation’  falls.  That is – businesses sold stuff they produced in earlier periods, rather than make new stuff.  So this too cuts GDP growth.

    Three:  Defense spending.  US defense spending declined,  temporarily, probably due to COVID and supply chain issues.  This is also temporary.  It will accelerate a lot in the coming quarters, because the US is shipping a major portion of its arsenal to Ukraine (fully a third of US’s Javelin anti-tank missiles were shipped there).  That inventory will be replenished, and GDP will grow as a result. The House of Representative just approved $40 billion in new aid to Ukraine.

    Bottom line:  (if you’ve made it this far):   This is a one-quarter drop in GDP, probably not repeated in Q2.   It is not a signal of recession (which requires two quarters of negative GDP growth).

    However —  a recession could STILL occur.  If the FED tightens credit too rapidly, and this spreads abroad, we will get stagnation plus inflation – the stagflation of the 1970’s. The inflation is supply-side, cost based. Tighter credit cuts demand. A double whammy, both reducing GDP.

    So – Q1 negative growth was noise – but just because people cry ‘wolf!’ doesn’t mean there isn’t a pack of them waiting around the corner.

by Shlomo Maital

How to Change the World – In 4-5 Steps

By Shlomo Maital  

   In my previous blog entry, I argued that to be truly creative – to have ideas that are BOTH novel and useful,  meaning, ideas that you actually implement and get people to use – you need some structure or method.

   Here are a couple.  But each person really needs to design their own.

    A.  From a highly successful global innovation consultant:

     1.  Define the existing situation.

     2.  Define a ‘virtual’ situation (goal, ideal).

     3.  Define clearly WHY?   Why create the virtual ideal situation?  Why will it create value?    Cultivate wild ideas in this stage.    Use some basic arithmetic tools:  add, subtract, multiply, divide.  Especially subtract

     4.  Now,  State HOW!  How will you implement the virtual (ideal)?  State the practical steps for this to happen.

     E.g.  Take a bicycle.  Remove its wheels. (subtraction).  Now – what can you do with a wheel-less bicycle?  Answer:  Exercise bike.  A huge industry.

     Or:

    B.  My own yin-yang method.  Which is  very similar to A. above.

    1.  Define the Yang (the ‘light’):  The IDEAL innovation that you seek to create.

      2.  Define the Yin (the ‘actual’, existing; the ‘dark’).  The product or process as it is now. 

      3.  State clearly what are all the constraints, or obstacles, that prevent attaining the Yang – ideal innovation.

      4.  Show how to use one or more of the basic creativity tools, to close the gap between the yang and the yin – between the actual, existing,   and the ideal, desired innovation.  (Look up TRIZ, a method devised by a Russian engineer named Genrich Altschuler, who built a taxonomy of all the ways people have come up with creative ideas).   

      5.  State clearly a feasible action plan to implement the innovation.

      Carpenters need tools.  Plumbers need tools.  So do creative people.  Build yourself a creativity toolbox, containing proven tools that you can apply to crack ‘what if’ challenges.  One common mistake:  Developers use ‘addition’ and keep adding new features on to existing products, often destroying them.  Go the other way.  Try subtraction. Take away things, especially ‘essential’ features, and see what you come up with to create new value.

The Million Faces of Creativity

By Shlomo Maital

 The New York Times has a regular‘style’ magazine, called “T”  (https://www.nytimes.com/international/section/t-magazine)  — which I generally dislike.  It usually features fashion models wearing expensive clothes that look, well, super-pretentious and usually ugly. 

   But the April 23, 2022, issue is very special.  Edited by Hanya Yanagihara, it features short pieces by 32 or so creative artists – designers, musicians, artists, writers – who distill their creative process and describe it.  And give advice.

   As a lifelong student of creativity, I have peddled the idea that brainstorming (defined as random chaotic ideation) is ineffective.  You need some sort of structure to control the wild tiger of creativity.  I have helped students build their own “personal creativity machine”, which sounds like an oxymoron…. Creativity machine????    But the idea was simply, build your own process for having ideas, one that is usited to your tastes, personality, skills, and goals.  And each Personal Creativity Machine must be unique and it must fit you, like an expensive jacket or pair of jeans. 

    In this “T” magazine issue, we have 32 such personal creativity machines.  They are each fascinating and each is unique and different.  I especially liked the “Letters to an Artist” segment – 40 creative people, many senior citizens, who share wisdom about “how to be and what to do at the beginning, middle and end of an artistic career”. 

   A few samples:  Bernadette Peters, 74 (Broadway star! Sondheim interpreter!  Remember  Mack and Mabel (1974), Sunday in the Park with George (1984), Song and Dance (1985), Into the Woods (1987), The Goodbye Girl (1993), Annie Get Your Gun (1999), Gypsy (2003), A Little Night Music (2010), Follies (2011), and Hello, Dolly!).   “Never try to copy or sound like anyone else!  But you can admire their work…”.   YoY o Ma 66,  cellist: “”We live in a very hierarchical musical world.  This is the moment not to get paralyzed. Use all your senses and exercise them.  And forge your values!”.   Annette Bening, 83, actor.  “(mother of four)     ….  When you have responsibilities that are outside of yourself, it makes your work better.  And your desire to continue to excavate and express the inexpressible doesn’t leave you.  It might wane, but then it comes back.”

    And the lovely segment (to me, as a senior senior), about later-life creativity…   YoYo Ma again:  “As an older person, you can see what is coming down the pike better…. There’s a sense of clarity.  You know your time is limited. You can differentiate and maybe occasionally have some choice in saying, “I don’t need to do that!  Let me tell you what I really care about.”

Putin’s Unwitting Gift

By Shlomo Maital

        Russia is again offering a priceless gift to the free world:  Brilliant educated minds.  I know because 20-30 years ago, my country Israel reaped a crucial invaluable windfall of Russian human capital.

        Question is, will the US accept this gift?  If not – which country will benefit most?

        History not only rhymes, it does repeat itself.  Following the 1976 U.S. Jackson-Vanik amendment, Soviet Jews were defined as political refugees, hence not subject to US quotas.  During 1970-1988, of 291,000 Soviet Jews given exit visas, 43% emigrated to the US.  In large part, they were well-educated and productive.    

        Then in 1989, Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev opened the floodgates.  Most emigrés chose the U.S. as their desired destination.  But in October, the Reagan Administration redefined Soviet immigrants as economic refugees, subject to a small 50,000-a-year quota.  

       The quota was quickly filled. And so most Russian Jews went to Israel, whose Law of Return offers any Jewish person citizenship at once, on entry.

        In some 17 years, between 1989 and 2006, over a million-and-a-half Soviet Jews  left the former Soviet Union.  Fully a million migrated to Israel.   Around 300,000 migrated to the United States. 

        The result: “The Russians saved Israel, big time”  noted Shlomo Maoz, a leading Israel economist.   Maoz said the infusion of a million educated Russians fueled Israel’s high-tech industry precisely at the moment skilled manpower was desperately needed and in short supply.   Nurses, doctors, engineers, scientists —  a priceless windfall of human capital.   

        Largely as a result of hi-tech, Israel’s per capita GDP is today some $43,000,  four times larger than that of Russia.    

      The US, like Israel, was built by immigrants.  In 2019, 45 million immigrants lived in the US, one American in every seven, very close to the peak ratio reached in 1890.   

          On Thursday March 24, President Joe Biden said in Brussels that the US would accept 100,000 Ukrainian refugees. Sadly, credit the Russians with that gift.  And expect a flood of young educated Russians to follow.  

          The one thing Russia and the former socialist republics did supremely well was to educate people.  They still do.  Russia could have leveraged the creative entrepreneurial energy of its young people to grow wealthy, like Israel.  But in kleptopia, a nation of corrupt thieves, why launch a startup when a Putin henchman will simply steal it, backed by Putin?

         Many young Russians oppose Putin’s war and are leaving.  It is not easy to do so. For now many have gone to Georgia or Armenia –a temporary stop on their way to the West.   By one estimate, “up to 70,000 computer specialists, spooked by a sudden frost in the business and political climate, have bolted the country since Russia invaded Ukraine five weeks ago. Many more are expected to follow”, according to Associated Press journalist   Liudas Dapkus.   

      “The main reason,” an information technology specialist named Artyom Saprykin told Radio Free Europe, “was the realization that Russia has no future.  …With the beginning of the war, I understood that the situation in the country was much worse than I thought.”  

      According to the financial weekly The Economist, “over the past 10 years, Russians have begun to die younger and are becoming fewer, poor and more miserable

     The elderly will likely stay.  Many of the educated young will leave.

     A Kodak ad once famously called its cameras “the gift that keeps on giving”.  That phrase fits immigrant human capital to a “T”.  They brought energy, skills and ultimately wealth to Israel.  And they can do the same for any country willing to accept them. 

      It could be the US.  A 2021 Cato Institute poll found that 68% of Americans favor a “low level” of immigration and 23% prefer a “high level”.  

      Putin, a murderous war criminal, is unwittingly offering America and the West a priceless gift. Wise nations will grab it with both hands, as Israel did.           

Change by Design: Feasiblity, Viability, Desirability

By Shlomo Maital

  “Simplify as much as possible”,  Einstein counselled.  (And indeed he did…).

   But he added an escape clause.

   “But not more so!”

    Can we simplify the ‘secret sauce of success’ for innovation?  Without leaving out anything essential?

    Author Tim Brown has.  Here is his revised, updated book on Change by Design.  The formula has only three ingredients. The key is ‘design thinking’, implemented most powerfully by Brown’s design consulting company IDEO, which he leads. 

                     1.  Feasibility.   2.  Desirability.  3.  Viability

    Feasibility:  Can you do it?  Is the technology enabler practical, do-able, reachable, after, of course, very long hard work in the lab?

    Desirability:  If you do it, make it, provide it widely – will people like it?  Use it?  Buy it?  Want it?  How do you know? 

    Viability: Can you sustain it?  Can you grow it?  Can you scale it?  Is there a business model here?  What is it?   

     The mnemic for the ‘secret sauce’ is  Damn Fine Vision:  DFV.  Does your idea satisfy DFV?  

     Brown wants us innovators to aim high.  Tackle wicked problems, he urges:  Really really tough, hard problems that are long unsolved, have no obvious solution despite many tries.  Aim high. 

     Brown also offers us a proven method.  Diverge, then converge.  My co-author and I have developed this idea independently, as “Zoom Out Zoom in”.* 

    First, gather many wild ideas (diverge).  Then converge – weed out the bad ones, keep the good ones.  Then diverge again.  And repeat the process, until you have DFV  Damn Fine Vision.

   *  Arie Ruttenberg, Shlomo Maital. Cracking the Creativity Code.  SAGE (India), 2014.   

Murderous Butcher: How to Qualify

By Shlomo Maital

   President Joe Biden delivered a powerful speech in Poland.  In it he ad libbed and called for Putin to be removed from power.  Earlier he called him a “butcher”.  And a war criminal.

    There was a firestorm of criticism following his speech.  Regime change!  Regime change!  He called for regime change! He was forced to recant!

     Oh my.  You can’t do that.  The Russian people have the right to keep in power their murderous butcher. 

     Right?

     So – what does it take, for the world to say, this guy has to go?   Not enough to level an entire city to rubble and starve its inhabitants?  Make half the children of Ukraine into refugees?  Threaten nuclear warfare, and chemical warfare?

     What does it take? 

     Yes, regime change!  If the Russian people support and maintain this guy, they are culpable.  If we shy away from saying ‘regime change’,  WE are culpable.

     Putin has to go.  Let’s say it loud and clear, everywhere, in every forum…and do everything to make sure his defeat in Ukraine is so resounding, that his inner circle will seek to replace him.  Pronto.

Toward a New Bretton Woods

By Shlomo Maital

 It is time to convene leaders of all the major democratic nations of the world, to rebuild the global economy and financial system.  It is not that hard.  We did it once before, with incredible success. 

  In July 1944,  the US and Britain convened a gathering of Allied economists and experts, led by the US Treasury’s Harry Dexter White and British economist John Maynard Keynes.  It was held at the lovely old Hotel Mt. Washington, at the foot of lovely Mt. Washington, in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. 

   Keynes was by far the world’s smartest economist.  In 1941 he wrote a series of articles in The Times of London, explaining how to finance the costly WWII without causing inflation.  In 1944 he claimed the world needed a World Central Bank, to create the liquidity and money needed to rebuild world trade.  He was absolutely right. But alas, the US had 75% of the world’s GDP and even more military power.  The dollar, America said, will be the world’s currency.

   At the Bretton Woods meeting, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), engine for free global trade,    the IMF,  the BIS (Bank for International Settlements), the World Bank —   all were created.  And the resulting global economy helped create economic miracles, as Europe rebuilt and later Asia.  The brilliant Marshall Plan helped a lot.

    The Bretton Woods gathering was held in July 1944, barely a month after the June 5 landing of Allied forces on the beaches of Normandy,  rolling back the  German invaders.

      The war would last for many more months; the war in Europe ended on May 8, 1945, with Germany’s surrender, and on August 15, 1945, when Japan surrendered.  But Allied leaders had the foresight to reinvent the global financial and economic infrastructure even before war ended.  And they did it in 10 days – because the wealthy Boston tycoons had reserved hotel rooms for their summer vacation to escape the summer heat.

      Even as the Russians destroy Ukraine, and their own economy, it is the right time to convene the democracies and reshape the world economy.  A major part of this meeting will be a plan to rebuild Ukraine and integrate it into the European Union.  It will include reductions of tariffs, and a renewal of the Trans-Asian Partnership (as Bret Stephens proposes in The New York Times). 

      The global economy was stumbling, in 2022, even before the war Russia instigated, slowing after an initial 2021 recovery from the pandemic.  We need a new Bretton Woods to generate renewed economic growth, deal with climate change, and yes, wake up soporific slumbering Europe to start defending themselves and funding a modern lean army.  An EU-US and UK-US trade deal is vital.   The current tendency for countries to try to become more self-reliant is understandable, but costly.  Collaboration is called for.

     And not least, we need a new commitment to democracy.  Democratic nations must step up and provide hope and opportunity for all their citizens, in the face of the corrupt oligarchs controlling the autocratic kleptocracies of Russia, Belarus, Venezuela….  Democracies have spawned their own ‘billionaire oligarchs’ and need to tax them.  Janet Yellin’s pragmatic suggestion for a global minimum income tax has been agreed to by 136 countries!

Inside Putin’s Mind

By Shlomo Maital  

Open walnut on pink background – Concept of brain, walnut and woman

    What is going on, inside Putin’s brain? 

      I’ve just done a quick survey of analyses on the impact of Putin’s War on the global economy.  According to the IMF, the world economy was in trouble in January, slowing after picking up in late 2021.  And now, the Putin War has dealt us a very heavy costly blow – even if it ended tomorrow, which it won’t.

      So what is this evil man thinking?  The best account I could find comes from Mikhail Zygar,  a Russian journalist,  author of “All the Kremlin’s Men: Inside the Court of Vladimir Putin.”   He wrote an Op-Ed in the New York Times, published on March 10.*

      Zygar writes:  “I have been talking to high-level businessmen and Kremlin insiders for years. In 2016 I published a book, “All the Kremlin’s Men,” about Mr. Putin’s inner circle. Since then I’ve been gathering reporting for a potential sequel.

     “While the goings on around the president are opaque — Mr. Putin, a former K.G.B. officer, has always been secretive and conspiratorial — my sources, who speak to me on condition of anonymity, have regularly been correct.

     “What I have heard about the president’s behavior over the past two years is alarming. His seclusion and inaccessibility, his deep belief that Russian domination over Ukraine must be restored and his decision to surround himself with ideologues and sycophants have all helped to bring Europe to its most dangerous moment since World War II.

      Putin has been isolated for two years.  His deep feelings of anger towad the West, resentment at Russia’s humiliation, and the desire for revenge, have stewed in his head, reverberated there, and boiled over into war.   Zygar explains:

     “Mr. Putin spent the spring and summer of 2020 quarantining at his residence in Valdai, approximately halfway between Moscow and St. Petersburg. According to sources in the administration, he was accompanied there by Yuri Kovalchuk. Mr. Kovalchuk, who is the largest shareholder in Rossiya Bank and controls several state-approved media outlets, has been Mr. Putin’s close friend and trusted adviser since the 1990s. But by 2020, according to my sources, he had established himself as the de facto second man in Russia, the most influential among the president’s entourage.”

    Who is this Kovalchuk, Putin’s most trusted – perhaps, only – confidant and advisor?

     “Mr. Kovalchuk has a doctorate in physics and was once employed by an institute headed by the Nobel laureate Zhores Alferov. But he isn’t just a man of science. He is also an ideologue, subscribing to a worldview that combines Orthodox Christian mysticism, anti-American conspiracy theories and hedonism. This appears to be Mr. Putin’s worldview, too. Since the summer of 2020, Mr. Putin and Mr. Kovalchuk have been almost inseparable, and the two of them have been making plans together to restore Russia’s greatness.

         “According to people with knowledge of Mr. Putin’s conversations with his aides over the past two years, the president has completely lost interest in the present: The economy, social issues, the coronavirus pandemic, these all annoy him. Instead, he and Mr. Kovalchuk obsess over the past. A French diplomat told me that President Emmanuel Macron of France was astonished when Mr. Putin gave him a lengthy history lecture during one of their talks last month. He shouldn’t have been surprised.”

       Note those words. “Completely lost interest in the present”.  Translate: “Detached from reality”.   Diplomacy?  With someone who is not interested in trivial matters, like the total isolation of the Russian people, for years or decades?  The collapse of Russia’s economy?  Death of its young men?

     “In his mind, Mr. Putin finds himself in a unique historical situation in which he can finally recover for the previous years of humiliation. In the 1990s, when Mr. Putin and Mr. Kovalchuk first met, they were both struggling to find their footing after the fall of the Soviet Union, and so was the country. The West, they believe, took advantage of Russia’s weakness to push NATO as close as possible to the country’s borders. In Mr. Putin’s view, the situation today is the opposite: It is the West that’s weak. The only Western leader that Mr. Putin took seriously was Germany’s previous chancellor, Angela Merkel. Now she is gone and it’s time for Russia to avenge the humiliations of the 1990s.

      “It seems that there is no one around to tell him otherwise. Mr. Putin no longer meets with his buddies for drinks and barbecues, according to people who know him. In recent years — and especially since the start of the pandemic — he has cut off most contacts with advisers and friends. While he used to look like an emperor who enjoyed playing on the controversies of his subjects, listening to them denounce one another and pitting them against one another, he is now isolated and distant, even from most of his old entourage.”

    Zygar sees no likely figure who can oppose Putin.  “He seems to believe that complete isolation will make a large part of the most unreliable elements leave Russia: During the past two weeks, the protesting intelligentsia — executives, actors, artists, journalists — have hurriedly fled the country; some abandoned their possessions just to get out. I fear that from the point of view of Mr. Putin and Mr. Kovalchuk, this will only make Russia stronger.”

*  How Vladimir Putin Lost Interest in the Present.    NYT, March 10, 2022

Zelensky: Life Imitates Art

By Shlomo Maital

    Even if you tried, you could not make up a story as improbable.  This is the story of Ukraine President Volodymyr Zelensky.

    What is his background?

    Zelensky is Jewish.  He was born on Jan. 25 1978, and is 44 years old.  His father is a Professor of Computer Science and his mother is an engineer.  His grandfather Semyon attained the rank of Colonel in the Red Army infanatry and fought in WWII.  Semyon’s father and three brothers were murdered by the Nazis in the Holocaust. 

      He grew up as a native Russian speaker in central Ukraine, and studied law, earning his degree from Kyiv National Economic University.  But he did not practice, founded a TV production company Kvartal 95 and starred in the 2015-2019 hit sitcom Servant of the People, in which Zelensky played the role of the President of Ukraine.  The program was aired in Russian and was highly popular in Russia.

    Why was his TV sitcom Servant of the People so popular, especially in Russia?

     Zelensky played the role of a high school history teacher in his 30s, who makes a viral video in which he rants against government corruption in Ukraine.  He rides this popularity to the presidency.  With oligarchs raking in wealth in Ukraine and especially in Russia, this touched a chord with middle-class Russians and Ukrainians.

    How did he get elected as President of Ukraine?

     In March 2018 members of Zelensky’s production company registered a political party named Servant of the People, the same name as the TV sitcom.  I can only speculate it was primarily a marketing move. Zelensky says it was done to keep other politicians from appropriating the name.  By October 2018 Zelensky already led the opinion polls.  And finally, on December 31, 2018, he announced his candidacy for President – in the popular New Year’s Eve show on a leading TV channel.  His announcement upstaged the speech, at the same time, of then-President Poroshenko.

     Zelensky’s campaign was totally ‘virtual’.  He had no policy platform.  He avoided the press and campaigned solely through social media and YouTube.  He even conducted standup comedy routines across Ukraine, running as anti-establishment, anti-corruption.  The Ukrainian press heavily criticized Zelensky for avoiding them. 

    Zelensky was elected President of Ukraine on April 21 2019, in a super-landslide. He won 73% of the vote, to Poroshenko’s 25%.

    One of Zelensky’s first acts was to shape a law creating a public registry of Ukraine’s oligarchs, banning them from participating in privatization of state-owned companies. (Note: This was how Putin’s oligarchs got wealthy, first under Yeltsin and then heavily under Putin – appropriating the shares of privatized State companies, in nickel, aluminum, steel, banking, and oil). 

     The bill became law in September 2021.

   Why has he proved so effective as a wartime leader and communicator for his people?

    Because he is playing a role he practiced for years.  Because acting is communicating. Because as a wartime leader, the most crucial skill is communicating (e.g. Churchill, 1941).  And because he understands the crucial role he is playing.  And because he has guts.

Putin’s Paranoia

By Shlomo Maital

      At the outbreak of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, I consulted a senior, seasoned former diplomat, highly knowledgeable about Russia.

      Is Putin crazy? I asked.   The diplomat said, no.  He is not crazy.

      I accept that.  He is not insane.  But he is certainly paranoid.  Here is why.

     “Paranoia is an instinct or thought process that is believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.  Paranoid thinking typically includes persecutory beliefs, or beliefs of conspiracy concerning a perceived threat towards oneself.”

      Putin has frightened some of my family members, with his televised order to his nuclear forces to go on high alert.  President Biden’s response has been measured and judicious, noting that “Putin perceives a threat that does not exist.”  I am sure Biden’s intelligence people are supplying Biden with psychological profiles of the Moscow Maniac.

      That defines paranoia.  Putin perceives a threat to Russia, and to himself, that is not real.  The West, he believes, is out to get him and Russia.

      But there is a catch.

      Putin acts on his paranoia and invades Ukraine. And his war does not go well.  The West rallies, supporting Ukraine with sanctions, military aid, financial aid, and moral support.  Russia is isolated. The ruble tanks. The Russian stock market closes.  The Nordstream 2 pipeline tanks.  Russia is banned from basketball and soccer competitions. 

       So – Putin’s paranoia becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. You see?  They ARE out to get me.  And indeed, now, perhaps they are…. because this man is a danger to the world, not just to Ukraine.

        Paranoia becomes reality. 

        And this is where things get really dangerous.  Because this paranoid has a nuclear button.  And Russia’s military doctrine calls for we-can-go-first use of tactical low-yield nuclear weapons, some of it fired as artillery shells from 205 mm. long-range artillery.

         It is the beginning of the end for this 70-year-old Botox-disfigured lying despot.   But before he goes down, he will take many innocent people with him. 

      As so often happens, Western democracies, smug, complacent, fat and contented, ignored clear and present dangers right on their horizons….until it is almost too late. 

        As Bob Dylan sang:  When will they (we) ever learn?

Blog entries written by Prof. Shlomo Maital

Shlomo Maital

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